The Canadian Copy-Fight: Copyright, Culture and the Internet

Professor Michael Geist

Canada Research Chair in Internet and E-commerce Law

University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law


Presentation at the OPCUG 2007-05-09


Michael Allen Geist (born 1968) is a Canadian academic who is recognized as an international expert in Internet and copyright issues. He holds a Canada Research Chair in Internet and E-Commerce Law at the University of Ottawa.


Geist was educated at the University of Western Ontario, Osgoode Hall Law School, Cambridge University and the Columbia Law School.


His weekly columns on new technology and its legal ramifications appear in the Toronto Star and the Ottawa Citizen, among other newspapers, and help bring these complex issues to the understanding of Canadians across the country. He is widely quoted in the national and international media on Internet law issues, and appears regularly before Parliamentary committees to testify on these subjects. He has received numerous awards for his work including Canarie’s IWAY Public Leadership Award for his contribution to the development of the Internet in Canada.


He served on Canada's National Task Force on Spam and is the founder of the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic, Canada's leading public interest technology law clinic. He is also a board member of the Canadian Internet Registration Authority, which manages the dot-ca domain. In 2006, he announced that he would not run for re-election to the board.


Dr. Geist was named one of Canada’s Top 40 Under 40 in 2002


On August 18, 2006, Dr. Geist launched a wiki around his "30 Days of DRM" blog post. The intended purpose of said wiki is discussion of DRM technology and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in relation to copyright legislation in Canada.


His books include:

Internet Law in Canada, a law textbook.

In the Public Interest: The Future of Canadian Copyright Law, edited by Geist, a collection of essays dealing with Bill C-60 and Canadian copyright reform. Federation Press  2007

 [ ]


Michael Geist's Website and Blog, Dr Geist is at the University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law, Common Law Section, 57 Louis Pasteur, Box 450, Stn. A

Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5. (613) 562-5800 extension 3319, Fax: 613-562-5124, His blog is at


boingboing, a directory of wonderful things,


Globe and Mail, Kapica’s Cyberia Blog,


CopyrightWatch, Canada's home for common sense and the straight goods on digital copyright law. This blog is supported by a team of academics, public interest advocates, and creators concerned that copyright serve the interests of ordinary Canadians.


Progressive Bloggers is a group of Canadian bloggers who firmly believe that this great country needs to move forward, not backwards. Be they Liberal or liberal, New Democrats or democrats, Green voters or voters who want a green country, or even Red Tories searching for a home, these bloggers believe that Canadian politics should move in a progressive direction.

On these blogs you will read about the importance of the environment, the need to preserve Canada’s social programs and its multicultural mosaic. You’ll see posts on why national unity is important and on why there are worse problems than letting two people who love each other marry.


BnLblog, Bare Naked Ladies blog, See also their BnL Music - do it yourself, remix, create, below.


Online Rights Canada (ORC) is a grassroots organization that promotes the public's interest in technology and information policy. We believe that Canadians should have a voice in copyright law, access to information, freedom from censorship, and other issues that we face in the digital world. Join us by using the form on your right to sign up for email updates.


Cafépress, shop, sell or create what’s on your mind,


Technorati  is an Internet search engine for searching blogs, competing with Google, Yahoo and IceRocket. As of April 2007, Technorati indexes over 75 million weblogs. The name Technorati is a portmanteau, pointing to the technological version of literati or intellectuals.


Technorati was founded by Dave Sifry and its headquarters are in San Francisco, California, USA. Tantek Çelik is the site's Chief Technologist.


Technorati uses and contributes to open source software. Technorati has an active software developer community, many of them from open-source culture. Sifry is a major open-source advocate, and was a founder of LinuxCare and later of Wi-Fi access point software developer Sputnik. Technorati includes a public developer's wiki, where developers and contributors collaborate, as well as various open APIs.


The site won the SXSW 2006 awards for Best Technical Achievement and also Best of Show.[1] It was also nominated for a 2006 Webby award for Best Practices, but lost to Flickr and Google Maps.[2] blog search,,


BnL Music, do it yourself, remix, create . . .


Post Secret,


Fan Fiction,


Star Wreck,


Elephants Dream, Elephants Dream is the world’s first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license.

The short film was created by the Orange Open Movie Project studio in Amsterdam during 2005/2006, bringing together a diverse team of artists and developers from all over the world.


Extreme Diet Coke and Mentos Experiments,, Making Movies in Virtual Reality. Machinima portal. Includes files archive, news, articles, hosting of movies, and introductions to Machinima.


Creative Archive Licence Group, Find it, Rip it, Mix it, Share it – Come and get it,

The BBC, the bfi, Channel 4 and the Open University set up the Creative Archive Licence Group in April 2005 to make their content available for download under the terms of the Creative Archive Licence, a single, shared user licence scheme for the downloading of moving images, audio and stills.

Membership is available to major national collections, broadcasters, and commercial organisations who wish to share content with the public on the same terms, are committed to the process of improving the service to the user and can meet monthly.

Members of the Creative Archive Licence Group will feature on this website, with links to any downloadable content they provide. They will be licenced to use the Creative Archive Licence Group and will have the opportunity to co-ordinate their plans with other members of the Creative Archive Licence Group.

The current members of the Creative Archive Licence Group are:


British Film Institute (bfi)

Channel 4

Open University

Teachers' TV

The Museums, Libraries and Archives Council


Backstage, is the BBC's developer network to encourage innovation and support new talent. Content feeds are available for people to build with on a non-commercial basis.

Backstage Blog,


Content Sharing


Flickr, the best way to store, search, sort and share your photos,


Creative Commons, Share, reuse, and remix — legally. Find it, publish it.

Creative Commons provides free tools that let authors, scientists, artists, and educators easily mark their creative work with the freedoms they want it to carry. You can use CC to change your copyright terms from "All Rights Reserved" to "Some Rights Reserved."

We're a nonprofit organization. Everything we do — including the software we create — is free.


Worldwide Commons, — an offshoot of our licensing project dedicated to the drafting and eventual adoption of jurisdiction-specific licenses. Creative Commons International is being lead by Catharina Maracke, with help from member jurisdictions.


Science Commons serves the advancement of science by removing unnecessary legal and technical barriers to scientific collaboration and innovation.

Built on the promise of Open Access to scholarly literature and data, Science Commons identifies and eases key barriers to the movement of information, tools and data through the scientific research cycle.

Our long term vision is to provide more than just useful contracts. We will combine our publishing, data, and licensing approaches to develop solutions for a truly integrated and streamlined research process.


CCMixter, This is a community music site featuring remixes licensed under Creative Commons, where you can listen to, sample, mash-up, or interact with music in whatever way you want.

Remixers   If you're into sampling, remixing and mash-ups grab the sample packs and a cappellas for download and you can upload your version back into ccMixter, for others to enjoy and re-sample. All legal.

Podcasters, directors and music lovers    If you're into music, browse this site to hear some of the great remixes people have built from sampling music on this site, all licensed for use under Creative Commons license.


SoundClick, the best free artist music community. Exclusive top stars and unsigned bands. Free member pages including unlimited free webspace, ... the best free mp3 music community. Free member pages including unlimited free webspace, free MP3 download and hosting, streaming audio, ... which sees about 70000 song uploads per month, soft-launched the Creative Commons license option one month ago.... Among SoundClick's features are The First Internet Charts.


Knowledge sharing




The Encyclopedia of Life, Comprehensive, collaborative, ever-growing, and personalized, the Encyclopedia of Life is an ecosystem of websites that makes all key information about life on Earth accessible to anyone, anywhere in the world. Our goal is to create a constantly evolving encyclopedia that lives on the Internet, with contributions from scientists and amateurs alike. To transform the science of biology, and inspire a new generation of scientists, by aggregating all known data about every living species. And ultimately, to increase our collective understanding of life on Earth, and safeguard the richest possible spectrum of biodiversity.


OhmyNews, is a South Korean online newspaper with the motto "Every Citizen is a Reporter". It was founded by Oh Yeon Ho on February 22, 2000.

It is the first of its kind in the world to accept, edit and publish articles from its readers, in an open source style of news reporting. About 20% of the site's content is written by the 55-person staff while the majority of articles are written by other freelance contributors who are mostly ordinary citizens.

OhmyNews International is an English language online newspaper that features "citizen reporter" articles written by contributors from all over the globe. Its content is almost 100% citizen reporter.

A similar open source perspective on news reporting has been explored by Wikinews, with the added feature that any user can edit articles at any time, rather than having to submit articles to be vetted by paid staff.

In 2006 OhmyNews started to build a Japan-based citizen-participatory journalism site called OhmyNews Japan, launched on August 28 with a famous Japanese journalist and 22 other employees working under ten reporters. These journalists' articles were the object of much criticism, on Nov. 17, 2006, the newspaper ended the citizen-participation aspect of the paper.,


Global Voices, aggregates, curates, and amplifies the global conversation online – shining light on places and people other media often ignore. Global Voices Online is a non-profit global citizens’ media project founded at Harvard Law School’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society, a research think-tank focused on the Internet’s impact on society.


Facebook is a social utility that connects you with the people around you. Facebook is made up of many networks, each based around a workplace, region, high school or college.

You can use Facebook to:

§            Share information with people you know.

§            See what's going on with your friends.

§            Look up people around you.


ecoFraud, was built on a boring, rainy weekend by a Montreal student who also works as a communications consultant. He is very concerned about the lack of leadership of his federal government over the fight against climate change and thought this parody would help raise awareness over the issue.


Project Gutenberg, There are over 20,000 free books in the Project Gutenberg Online Book Catalog.  A grand total of over 100,000 titles is available at Project Gutenberg Partners, Affiliates and Resources. . Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free electronic books, or eBooks. Michael Hart, founder of Project Gutenberg, invented eBooks in 1971 and continues to inspire the creation of eBooks and related technologies today.


LibriVox, provides free audiobooks from the public domain. There are several options for listening. The first step is to get the mp3 or ogg files into your own computer. Also podcasts - LibriVox podcast files are available Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with a poem on Sunday. Librivox volunteers record chapters of books in the public domain and publish the audio files on the Internet. Our goal is to record all the books in the public domain..


PloS, Public Library of Science, PLoS is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. All our activities are guided by our core principles. Open Access: Everything we publish is freely available online for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use (with attribution) any way you wish.


IDRC digital library, Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is pleased to announce the launch of its Digital Library, the first Open Access Institutional Repository established by a Canadian research-funding organization. [There is a security certificate problem with this URL].


Access to CIHR outputs, New and renewal applications for CIHR funding must now include a Research Output Access Plan. This plan must list anticipated research outputs.


MIT Open Course Ware, a free and open educational resource (OER) for educators, students, and self-learners around the world. 


·                     Is a publication of MIT course materials

·                     Does not require any registration

·                     Is not a degree-granting or certificate-granting activity

·                     Does not provide access to MIT faculty


OpenLearn Learning Space – The Open University, making educational resources freely available. Free and open educational resources for learners and educators around the world. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.


Internet Archive (formerly the Prelinger Archives), The Internet Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit that was founded to build an Internet library, with the purpose of offering permanent access for researchers, historians, and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format. Founded in 1996 and located in the Presidio of San Francisco, the Archive has been receiving data donations from Alexa Internet and others. In late 1999, the organization started to grow to include more well-rounded collections. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software as well as archived web pages in our collections.


Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources: peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. Google Scholar helps you identify the most relevant research across the world of scholarly research. Its features include:

·         Search diverse sources from one convenient place

·         Find papers, abstracts and citations

·         Locate the complete paper through your library or on the web

·         Learn about key papers in any area of research


Google Book Search, allows you to search the full text of books to find ones that interest you and learn where to buy or borrow them. When we find a book whose content contains a match for your search terms, we'll link to it in your search results. Clicking on a book result, you'll be able to see everything from a few short excerpts to the entire book, depending on a few different factors. For example, you can find all the books by dickens, or the complete works of Shakespeare.


Open Software






Apache. The Apache Software Foundation provides support for the Apache community of open-source software projects. The Apache projects are characterized by a collaborative, consensus based development process, an open and pragmatic software license, and a desire to create high quality software that leads the way in its field. We consider ourselves not simply a group of projects sharing a server, but rather a community of developers and users. Apache Projects include:


HTTP Server













































Web Services






XML Graphics


Debian is a free operating system (OS) for your computer. Debian uses the Linux kernel (the core of an operating system), but most of the basic OS tools come from the GNU project; hence the name GNU/Linux. Debian GNU/Linux provides more than a pure OS: it comes with over 18733 packages, precompiled software bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine.


Open Office, is a multiplatform and multilingual office suite and an open-source project. Compatible with all other major office suites, the product is free to download, use, and distribute.


Joomla, Cutting Edge Content Management. Joomla! is one of the most powerful Open Source Content Management Systems on the planet. It is used all over the world for everything from simple websites to complex corporate applications. Joomla! is easy to install, simple to manage, and reliable.


SourceForge is the world's largest Open Source software development web site, hosting more than 100,000 projects and over 1,000,000 registered users with a centralized resource for managing projects, issues, communications, and code. has the largest repository of Open Source code and applications available on the Internet, and hosts more Open Source development products than any other site or network worldwide. provides a wide variety of services to projects we host, and to the Open Source community.


Good news story


In the Financial Print Media, the unique visitors/month (Comscore) in the years shown were:


Financial Site



1.0 million

3.3 million

1.3 million

1.8 million

1.7 million

1.8 million

1.7 million

7.8 million


What did Forbes do right?


They published all their articles online in full text. .


It could be argued (though Geist did not say this) that the publisher does not care whether the reader sees the ads on the web page or the printed page.



In the Book Publishing field


The anatomy of the long tail


Full-size image



In the Public Interest: The Future of Canadian Copyright Law, edited by Michael Geist, a collection of essays dealing with Bill C-60 and Canadian copyright reform. Toronto: Irwin Law, September 2005. 608 pp. ISBN 1552211134, the first Canadian academic monograph to be offered under a Creative Commons Licence (Attribution, No-Derivatives, Non-Commercial):

From Grokster to Google, copyright has emerged as one of the Internet's most challenging legal issues. Once limited to a select group of scholars, copyright now captures front page headlines as millions of Canadians consider its impact on education, technology, communication, and culture.

As Canada embarks on a new round of digital copyright reform, this collection of 19 essays from Canada's leading copyright experts provides context and analysis of the latest reform proposals. Edited by Professor Michael Geist, an internationally-regarded authority on Internet and technology law, the collection reviews international copyright norms, assesses dozens of specific Bill C-60 provisions, and identifies potential future copyright reform initiatives. Completed immediately after the introduction of Bill C-60, this timely volume provides policy makers, lawyers, judges, educators, and interested Canadians with the tools and knowledge they need to participate in a copyright debate that will shape the future of the Internet, culture, and education in Canada.




 CBC Netcast, CBS Netcasting is a way to receive audio files over the Internet, using the RSS 2.0 file format, at no cost. You can listen to these files on your computer or download them on to your MP3 player and take them with you. All you need to get started is a Podcasting application. Once you download and install it, simply click on the RSS (really simple syndication) icon for the feed you want, then copy the URL from the address bar of your browser and paste it into your Podcasting application. The software will automatically check for updates and download the files to your computer so you can load them onto your MP3 player. Below are several free or commercial Podcasting applications available for download


iTunes (PC/Mac)

Doppler (PC)

iPodderX (Mac)

iPodder (PC)

Blog Matrix Sparks! (PC)

Playpod (Mac)




ABC TV. Watch Full Episodes Online for free,,,



YouTube – Lonelygirl15, [20,900 videos].

Lonelygirl15 debuted on YouTube posing as a "real" 16-year-old video blogger with the eponymous username. In "lonelygirl15"'s earliest videos, she posted video replies to and name-dropped popular YouTubers, which attracted the attention of their fans. Her video blogs eventually became popular in their own right, and attracted a massive following. To further the initial illusion that Bree was a real girl, a MySpace page was set up for her and she began meaningfully corresponding with many of her fans. Several fans of lonelygirl15's video posts began to wonder[4] if Bree was, in fact, a real person or if the posts were part of a teaser campaign for a television show or an upcoming movie  (similar to the viral marketing used to hype The Blair Witch Project). Others felt that the blog might be part of an alternate reality game.

In early August 2006, fans began an active discussion on the message boards and instigated an all-out investigation into the details behind lonelygirl15, pointing to small inconsistencies within the videos as evidence that the story might not be genuine. Los Angeles Times reporter Richard Rushfield was the first to provide proof of a hoax, when he wrote of Shaina Wedmedyk, Chris Patterson, and an anonymous law student, who set up a sting on MySpace to reveal that the Creative Artists Agency was behind the videos. Eventually it was revealed that 16-year-old "Bree" was played by 19-year-old New Zealand actress Jessica Rose.

Because of lonelygirl15's YouTube popularity, media sources seized upon the story, extensively covering both the search process and the eventual "outing" as a fictional series. Afterwards, numerous news sources and talk shows featured interviews with the creators and actors of the series itself.

New York Times reporter Virginia Heffernan expanded on the series of revelations on September 12 out with an article which confirmed Jessica Rose's identity, and revealed the identities of her "co-conspirators", Ramesh Flinders, a screenwriter and filmmaker from Marin County, Calif., and Miles Beckett, a doctor-turned-filmmaker. Software engineer Grant Steinfeld was also involved in this project, as a photographer. Amanda Solomon Goodfried assisted in their efforts to hide their identities as well as posed as "Bree"'s online alter-ego. Ms. Goodfried's father-in-law, Kenneth Goodfried, handled various legal matters. The personnel involved worked under a non-disclosure agreement, according to Grant Steinfeld. Steinfeld has verified most of this information to the Times, and provided photographs he took on set of Ms. Rose as proof.  Also on September 12, the three main creators gave an interview to the Los Angeles Times revealing the third major partner as Greg Goodfried.

Since the fictitious nature of lonelygirl15 has been revealed, the storyline continues to develop via new videos posted to both YouTube and Revver.


YouTube’s Lonelygirl15 a Fake, by Pete Cashmore —  

It’s been fairly clear for the last few weeks that YouTube’s rising starlet, Lonelygirl15, is more than a girl and a video camera. “Bree”, a home-schooled 16-year-old, receives an average of 200,000 views for the clips that are supposedly filmed in her bedroom. However, there are so many oddities - near-perfect video editing, a professional soundtrack, a contrived storyline involving a religious cult - that few people believe it to be genuine.

Today the LATimes has done some sleuthing that takes the story further - they’ve revealed that was registered in advance of the videos appearing, and that emails from Lonelygirl15 actually come from the offices of a Beverly Hills-based talent agency called Creative Artists Agency. What’s more, the phrase “lonelygirl15″ has been trademarked by an Encino lawyer. There’s even speculation that the clips are a promotion for an upcoming horror film, although the evidence isn’t that strong.

If Lonelygirl15 is an elaborate marketing ploy for a Blair Witch-style movie, then YouTube Marketing will join MySpace Marketing as one of the most viral new tactics. And even if it isn’t, it seems that YouTube mini-sagas are about to take off in a big way. What’s more, this covert strategy is far more effective than in-your-face advertising: Paris Hilton’s appearance on the site has gone down badly, since YouTube users reject in-your-face commercialism.

Update: Saturday’s LATimes will run a story about how the creators of Lonelygirl15 have come forward and explained that they’re trying to create a “new art form” with the series.

The face behind the phenomenon 'lonelygirl15' Jessica Rose ('Bree') was finally introduced to the public on "The Tonight Show with Jay :Leno." September 14, 2006.,



Video Games


Artech Studios - Game Developer / 2006 Website, Founded in 1982, Artech is a world class developer of interactive entertainment, video games, DVD, interactive TV and digital animation for international markets. Artech has many Gold and Platinum awards for million selling titles with over 200 games across all platforms, including Xbox, PS2 and PC.

Artech's strategy is to develop proprietary production methodologies to leverage digital content across many media platforms including web based entertainment and TV.

Artech clients: Microsoft, Mattel, The Hasbro Toy Co., Warner Bros., New Line Cinema, Sony Pictures, Intel, Atari, THQ, Disney, Scholastic Books and many others.

Recent titles: Monopoly, Wendy's DVD Games, Friends, Raze's Hell, Lord of the Rings, Trivial Pursuit, Clue and a number of interactive DVD titles with Scholastic Books, The History Channel and National Geographic.


Orbital Media, Orbital Media, Inc. (“Orbital”) is a publisher and developer of handheld video-games. Orbital’s debut title, Racing Gears Advance, launched in 2005 earned its recognition as one of the best racing games for the Nintendo GameBoy Advance and still ranks within the top 5 of all/genres GBA games released in 2005.

Our games are based on original content and integrated licensed brands. Our management and several design teams have extensive experience working together producing cutting edge entertainment software and proprietary technologies for handheld platforms.


Radical Entertainment is a video game developer located in Vancouver, British Columbia.  We create and develop games for all current and next generation platforms.  With over 15 years of experience and over 230 very talented employees we are well on our way to creating even more successful products.





CineClix, download and own DVD quality Independent festival films instantly. Online Film Festival. Diverse and thought provoking on-demand festival films. Films are DVD quality with an ever increasing catalogue of features, documentaries, shorts and animation at

[This URL does not respond].


BitTorrent, On 2006-05-09, Warner Bros Home Entertainment announced a groundbreaking agreement with BitTorrent Inc . . . With the announcement, Warner Bros becomes the first major studio to provide legal video content via the BitTorrent publishing platform.

The announcement follows BitTorrent's agreement with the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) to prevent film piracy and promote innovation in online digital distribution of content. Content published with BitTorrent will be available on the website and feature downloadable programming. The distribution channel will leverage BitTorrent's revolutionary "file-swarming" technology, which enables the transfer of massive files from a website to a PC with the speed and bandwidth efficiency of peer-assisted transfers. This new method of delivery is the first peer-assisted network in the U.S. that combines guaranteed availability, high-quality video and rapid download rates.

"The technology behind BitTorrent is elegantly designed for the delivery of large files like TV programs and films. Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Group was established to provide innovative, next-generation distribution models and this relationship provides our company with a unique platform to reach a new set of movie fans," said Kevin Tsujihara, President Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Group. "BitTorrent has made the leap in creating a legal partnership that respects the value of the intellectual property. This has provided us with a next-generation platform for the distribution of our films and TV programs."

BitTorrent will provide the first peer-assisted technology platform to offer U.S. consumers legal content on both a video-on-demand (VOD) and electronic sell through (EST) basis, day-and-date with the DVD release.

BitTorrent was designed in 2001 to be an effective publication tool for large files on the Web. With the launch of BitTorrent's search engine in 2005, became a place for publishers to showcase their content and consumers to find and download content in one convenient location. BitTorrent continues to work with the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) to remove copyright infringing content from its search results and is working with studios to replace that content, to provide a secure, legal venue for consumers. With integrated monetization for paid and ad-supported content, the forthcoming BitTorrent service will be an ideal platform for the online distribution of popular video.,,,

BitTorrent is a protocol designed for transferring files. It is peer-to-peer in nature, as users connect to each other directly to send and receive portions of the file. However, there is a central server (called a tracker) which coordinates the action of all such peers. The tracker only manages connections, it does not have any knowledge of the contents of the files being distributed, and therefore a large number of users can be supported with relatively limited tracker bandwidth. The key philosophy of BitTorrent is that users should upload (transmit outbound) at the same time they are downloading (receiving inbound.) In this manner, network bandwidth is utilized as efficiently as possible. BitTorrent is designed to work better as the number of people interested in a certain file increases, in contrast to other file transfer protocols.




102.1, The Edge is one of the most powerful and influential new rock radio stations. Based in Toronto, Canada, it’s the third most listened-to new rock station in the world.,,

Welcome to the official online home of the show – where you can subscribe to pod casts of the Ongoing History of New Music 60 second daily feature and now if you miss a show, don’t worry - you can listen when you want to by clicking here!  It’s The Ongoing History of New Music Online Channel, featuring the latest episode plus past shows.   Every Monday we’ll add the current show and provide you with access to more archived episodes every day. The Ongoing History of New Music debuted in February 1993 on radio station 102.1 The Edge/Toronto. Since then it’s—well, it’s taken on a life of its own. Consider: More than 500 different one-hour episodes have been produced, making it the longest-running music documentary in Canada and one of the longest in North America. More than 5,000 one-minute daily features have been written and produced. The program is syndicated on virtually every major rock station in Canada.


CBC Radio Podcasts, Welcome to CBC's podcasts! You'll find the best of our popular national Radio One shows, CBC TV's The Hour, regional podcast magazines, exclusive musical talent from Radio 3 and special podcast-only features. Discover programming that piques your curiosity, feeds your brain and sparks your emotions!


KYOURadio, Open source radio, from your basement to the airwaves. Submit your podcast. Podcast list at Or to listen with your radio at 1550AM in the SF Bay area, or via the Internet via KYOU Streaming at





PureTracks enables its web-based partners to add digital music sales through branded web sites and complementary prepaid music card offerings for retail channels. Puretracks has a proven solution set for powerful and attractive consumer promotion programs. Puretracks is licensed for over one million music tracks sourced directly from the master recordings of major and independent record companies.,


Emusic, works with the iPod or any MP3 player. 25 Free Downloads. Choose from over 1M songs. Songs just 25 or less after free trial.

eMusic is the world’s largest retailer of independent music and the world’s second-largest digital music retailer overall, offering more than 2 million tracks from more than 13,000 independent labels spanning every genre of music. A subscription-based service that allows consumers to own, not rent their music, eMusic is the largest service to sell tracks in the popular MP3 format – the only digital music format that is compatible with all digital music devices, including the iPod®. eMusic targets and successfully direct-markets to consumers who are interested in music outside the commercial mainstream, dramatically expanding the sale of catalogue typically known as "the long tail." Since Dimensional Associates acquired eMusic in 2003, the company has more than tripled its subscriber base.,


MySpace Music,


Pandora, To help you discover new music you'll love. To understand just how we do this, and why we think we do it really, really well, you need to know about the Music Genome Project ™ For almost seven years now, we have been hard at work on the Music Genome Project. It's the most comprehensive analysis of music ever undertaken. Together our team of fifty musician-analysts have been listening to music, one song at a time, studying and collecting literally hundreds of musical details on every song. It takes 20-30 minutes per song to capture all of the little details that give each recording its magical sound - melody, harmony, instrumentation, rhythm, vocals, lyrics ... and more - close to 400 attributes! We continue this work every day to keep up with the incredible flow of great new music coming from studios, stadiums and garages around the country. We've now created an interface to make this available to music lovers so they could use this musical 'connective-tissue' to discover new music based on songs or artists they already know. Pandora™ is the doorway to this vast trove of musical information. With Pandora you can explore to your heart's content. Just drop the name of one of your favorite songs or artists into Pandora and let the Genome Project go. It will quickly scan its entire world of analyzed music, almost a century of popular recordings - new and old, well known and completely obscure - to find songs with interesting musical similarities to your choice. Then sit back and enjoy as it creates a listening experience full of current and soon-to-be favorite songs for you. You can create as many "stations" as you want. And you can even refine them. If it's not quite right you can tell it more and it will get better for you. The Music Genome Project was founded by musicians and music-lovers. We believe in the value of music and have a profound respect for those who create it. We like all kinds of music, from the most obtuse bebop, to the most tripped-out drum n bass, to the simplest catchy pop tune. Our mission is to help YOU connect with the music YOU like., .


Jane Siberry self-determined pricing, An Open Letter From Issa, formerly Jane Siberry, About Self-Determined Pricing 

Hello Everyone!

I wanted you to hear about this from me first. The Sheeba store has a new pricing policy.

Like many, I'm restless and impatient with living in a world where people are made to feel like shoplifters rather than intelligent peoples with a good sense of balance. I want to treat people the way I'd like to be treated. 'Dumbing UP' (as opposed to 'dumbing down').


NOT donations

NOT pay-what-you-can

NOT guilt-trips

NOT tests of your integrity


You decide what feels right to your gut. If you download for free, perhaps you'll buy an extra CD at an indie band's concert. Or if you don't go with your gut feeling, you might sleep poorly, wake up grumpy, put your shoes on backwards and fall over. Whatever. You'll know what to do.,

Siberry offering free music on-line, JIM BESSMAN, December 6, 2005,

Notice from Jane Siberry about downloading changes at Sheeba

I received the following notice from Jane Siberry about the music downloads at Sheeba records. It should remind musicians why it is so important to retain copyright of your work, and be very careful about the continuous attempts by intermediaries to take control of your music away from you. Jane has been using the very successful self-determined pricing where her fans pick the monitory value of the music when they pay. (Note that all but 8% pay at or above the suggested price, statistics that show that the major labels are wrong about trusting music fans to pay for music!)





30 Days of DRM (Digital Rights Management) highlights some of the exceptions and limitations that the government should include if a Canadian DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) is introduced. Contribute to the discussion through the 30 Days of DRM Wiki. Monday September 18, 2006,com_topics/task,view/id,10055/Itemid,195/


Podcasts from the Law and Technology Program, University of Ottawa, The Techlaw Podcast is a podcast providing audio feeds of various talks and lectures by members of the Law & Technology Faculty, as well as radio and podcast appearances.


Cyber One: Law in the Court of Public Opinion, Welcome to the course website for Law in the Court of Public Opinion. This course is being offered jointly in the Harvard Law School and the Harvard Extension School in the fall semester, 2006.

If we do say so ourselves, the course will be unlike any that has ever been taught. It is a course in persuasive, empathic argument in the Internet space. Throughout the course we will be studying many different media technologies to understand how their inherent characteristics and modes of distribution affect the arguments that are made using them. Students will be immersed in this study through project-based assignments in which they will be using these technologies to make their own arguments.


Photo Tourism, exploring photo collections in 3D, University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering. Photo tourism is a system for browsing large collections of photographs in 3D. Our approach takes as input large collections of images from either personal photo collections or Internet photo sharing sites (a), and automatically computes each photo's viewpoint and a sparse 3D model of the scene (b). Our photo explorer interface enables the viewer to interactively move about the 3D space by seamlessly transitioning between photographs, based on user control (c).


J.M. Balkin, Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology, Yale University Press, May 1998 , 352 p. , ISBN: 9780300084504, ISBN-10: 0300084501.

Cultural Software explains ideology as a result of the cultural evolution of bits of cultural knowhow, or memes. It is the first book to apply theories of cultural evolution to the problem of ideology and justice.

In this book J. M. Balkin offers a strikingly original theory of cultural evolution, a theory that explains shared understandings, disagreement, and diversity within cultures. Drawing on many fields of study—including anthropology, evolutionary theory, cognitive science, linguistics, sociology, political theory, philosophy, social psychology, and law—the author explores how cultures grow and spread, how shared understandings arise, and how people of different cultures can understand and evaluate each other’s views.

Cultural evolution occurs through the transmission of cultural information and know-how—"cultural software"—in human minds, Balkin says. Individuals embody cultural software and spread it to others through communication and social learning. Ideology, the author contends, is neither a special nor a pathological form of thought but an ordinary product of the evolution of cultural software. Because cultural understanding is a patchwork of older imperfect tools that are continually adapted to solve new problems, human understanding is partly adequate and partly inadequate to the pursuit of justice. Balkin presents numerous examples that illuminate the sources of ideological effects and their contributions to injustice. He also enters the current debate over multiculturalism, applying his theory to problems of mutual understanding between people who hold different worldviews. He argues that cultural understanding presupposes transcendent ideals and shows how both ideological analysis of others and ideological self-criticism are possible. .

J. M. Balkin is Lafayette S. Foster Professor and director of the Information Society Project at Yale Law School.

Cultural Software is now available in an online version under a Creative Commons Noncommercial Sharealike license. Download an Online version of the book from


MIT Opencourseware, a free and open educational resource (OER) for educators, students, and self-learners around the world. 


MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) makes the course materials that are used in the teaching of almost all MIT’s undergraduate and graduate subjects available on the Web, free of charge, to any user anywhere in the world. MIT OCW is a large-scale, Web-based publication of MIT course materials, and is not a degree-granting or credit-bearing initiative.,,


Moodle is a course management system (CMS) - a free, Open Source software package designed using sound pedagogical principles, to help educators create effective online learning communities. You can download and use it on any computer you have handy (including webhosts), yet it can scale from a single-teacher site to a 50,000-student University. This site itself is created using Moodle, so check out the Moodle Demonstration Courses or read the latest Moodle Buzz





Liberal Party of Canada,


Conservative Party of Canada,




Bloc Québécois,


Charlie Angus MP for Timmins, Audio/Video Clips,,


Garth Turner Unedited,, . See also MPtv,





New Stakeholders

copyright law matters

old stakeholders

copyright lobby groups

copyright collectives

education groups


old stakeholders

new stakeholders

new groups


privacy coalition


appropriation art

hundreds, thousands, hundreds of thousands



Theberge (2002)

“Excessive control by holders of copyrights and other forms of intellectual property may unduly limit the ability of the public domain to incorporate and embellish creative innovation in the long-term interests of society as a whole, or create practical obstacles to proper utilization.”

accounting for the new stakeholders

lucy maud montgomery copyright term extension act (2003)

bulte report (2004)

c-60 (2005)

april 2004 – 05

access copyright

access copyright 15 times

music collectives

music collectives 14 times


cria 7 times

publisher groups

publisher groups 5 times

technology groups

technology groups twice

public interest groups

public interest groups twice

education groups

education groups once

bulte fundraisers





new copyright

one choice



copyright balance



free speech




Electronic Frontier Foundation,

Unintended Consequences: Five Years under the DMCA

This document is version 3. Previous versions are still available: version 2, version 1.


1.   Executive Summary

Since they were enacted in 1998, the “anti-circumvention” provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”), codified in section 1201 of the Copyright Act, have not been used as Congress envisioned. Congress meant to stop copyright pirates from defeating anti-piracy protections added to copyrighted works, and to ban “black box” devices intended for that purpose.[1]

In practice, the anti-circumvention provisions have been used to stifle a wide array of legitimate activities, rather than to stop copyright piracy. As a result, the DMCA has developed into a serious threat to several important public policy priorities:


Section 1201 Chills Free Expression and Scientific Research.

Experience with section 1201 demonstrates that it is being used to stifle free speech and scientific research. The lawsuit against 2600 magazine, threats against Princeton Professor Edward Felten’s team of researchers, and prosecution of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov have chilled the legitimate activities of journalists, publishers, scientists, students, program–mers, and members of the public.


Section 1201 Jeopardizes Fair Use.

By banning all acts of circumvention, and all technologies and tools that can be used for circumvention, section 1201 grants to copyright owners the power to unilaterally eliminate the public’s fair use rights. Already, the music industry has begun deploying “copy-protected CDs” that promise to curtail consumers’ ability to make legitimate, personal copies of music they have purchased.

Download PDF (292k):



See also version 4 (Seven Years . . .) of the above document:

Unintended Consequences: Seven Years under the DMCA

April, 2006

[Download a PDF of this Paper - 262K, ]

This document is version 4. Previous versions are still available: version 3, version 2, version 1.


·         Executive Summary

·         DMCA Legislative Background

·         Chilling Free Expression and Scientific Research

·         Fair Use Under Siege

·         A threat to innovation and competition

·         DMCA Shoulders Aside Computer Intrusion Statutes

·         Conclusion

·         Endnotes


This document collects a number of reported cases where the anti-circumvention provisions of the DMCA have been invoked not against pirates, but against consumers, scientists, and legitimate competitors. It will be updated from time to time as additional cases come to light. The latest version can always be obtained at

1. Executive Summary

Since they were enacted in 1998, the "anti-circumvention" provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act ("DMCA"), codified in section 1201 of the Copyright Act, have not been used as Congress envisioned. Congress meant to stop copyright infringers from defeating anti-piracy protections added to copyrighted works and to ban the "black box" devices intended for that purpose. 1

In practice, the anti-circumvention provisions have been used to stifle a wide array of legitimate activities, rather than to stop copyright infringement. As a result, the DMCA has developed into a serious threat to several important public policy priorities:

The DMCA Chills Free Expression and Scientific Research.
Experience with section 1201 demonstrates that it is being used to stifle free speech and scientific research. The lawsuit against 2600 magazine, threats against Princeton Professor Edward Felten's team of researchers, and prosecution of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov have chilled the legitimate activities of journalists, publishers, scientists, students, programmers, and members of the public.

The DMCA Jeopardizes Fair Use.
By banning all acts of circumvention, and all technologies and tools that can be used for circumvention, the DMCA grants to copyright owners the power to unilaterally eliminate the public's fair use rights. Already, the movie industry's use of encryption on DVDs has curtailed consumers' ability to make legitimate, personal-use copies of movies they have purchased.

The DMCA Impedes Competition and Innovation.
Rather than focusing on pirates, many copyright owners have wielded the DMCA to hinder their legitimate competitors. For example, the DMCA has been used to block aftermarket competition in laser printer toner cartridges, garage door openers, and computer maintenance services. Similarly, Apple invoked the DMCA to chill RealNetworks' efforts to sell music downloads to iPod owners.

The DMCA Interferes with Computer Intrusion Laws.
Further, the DMCA has been misused as a general-purpose prohibition on computer network access which, unlike most computer intrusion statutes, lacks any financial harm threshold. As a result, a disgruntled employer has used the DMCA against a former contractor for simply connecting to the company's computer system through a VPN.


CATO Institute,

March 21, 2006
Policy Analysis no. 564

Policy Analysis

Circumventing Competition: The Perverse Consequences of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

by Timothy B. Lee


Timothy B. Lee is a policy analyst at the Show-Me Institute in St. Louis. He holds a degree in computer science from the University of Minnesota and is the science and technology editor of the online magazine Brainwash and a contributor to the Technology Liberation Front website.

Executive Summary

The courts have a proven track record of fashioning balanced remedies for the copyright challenges created by new technologies. But when Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in 1998, it cut the courts out of this role and instead banned any devices that "circumvent" digital rights management (DRM) technologies, which control access to copyrighted content.

The result has been a legal regime that reduces options and competition in how consumers enjoy media and entertainment. Today, the copyright industry is exerting increasing control over playback devices, cable media offerings, and even Internet streaming. Some firms have used the DMCA to thwart competition by preventing research and reverse engineering. Others have brought the weight of criminal sanctions to bear against critics, competitors, and researchers.

The DMCA is anti-competitive. It gives copyright holders—and the technology companies that distribute their content—the legal power to create closed technology platforms and exclude competitors from interoperating with them. Worst of all, DRM technologies are clumsy and ineffective; they inconvenience legitimate users but do little to stop pirates.

Fortunately, repeal of the DMCA would not lead to intellectual property anarchy. Prior to the DMCA's enactment, the courts had already been developing a body of law that strikes a sensible balance between innovation and the protection of intellectual property. That body of law protected competition, consumer choice, and the important principle of fair use without sacrificing the rights of copyright holders. And because it focused on the actions of people rather than on the design of technologies, it gave the courts the flexibility they needed to adapt to rapid technological change.

[Full Text of Policy Analysis no. 564 (PDF, 159 KB):]



Parliament of Australia, House of Representatives,

House Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs


Committee activities (inquiries and reports)


Inquiry into technological protection measures (TPM) exceptions


Inquiry home | Terms of reference | Submissions | Public hearings | Media releases



On Wednesday 1 March 2006, the House Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs tabled its report on the inquiry into technological protection measures (TPM) exceptions entitled Review of technological protection measures exceptions.

To view or print the report, you will need Adobe Acrobat® PDF Reader, which can be downloaded free of charge from Adobe

Report accessibility:

·         Single chapter version downloads

·         Consolidated version download (PDF 1761KB)

·         Hypertext markup language - HTML

If you have difficulty accessing the report, please contact the Committee Secretariat.

This report is comprised of preliminary pages, 5 chapters and 4 appendices.


Review of technological protection measures exceptions


Preliminary pages (PDF 131KB)
Contents, Foreword, Committee Membership, Terms of Reference, List of Abbreviations and List of Recommendations


Chapter 1 (PDF 101KB)


internet 1997


Netscape Navigator 1.1 Beta 1 for Windows, 1995 Page



Netscape Navigator 1.1 Beta 1 for Windows


You are using Netscape 1.1b1 for Windows. These release notes cover new features, installation, known problems and bugs, and tips.

Netscape Navigator 1.1 Beta 1 will expire on April 1, 1995.

Update & Version Information

·         This is a beta version of 1.1. The currently released Netscape Navigator version 1.0N will continue to be available on our server until the final release of 1.1.

·         Customers who bought 1.0 will be entitled to a free version of 1.1 when it is officially released; these customers will be able to download a 1.1N version and be licensed to use this version.

·         Customers will not automatically receive the 1.1 version in the mail. It will be up to the customer to download the new version from our home pages

·         Licensed 1.0 customers will be able to transfer whatever time remains of their 90 days of support to the 1.1 version once it is officially released.


Pricing and Availablity

·         We will not be selling version 1.1 until it is officially released. However, if you purchase version 1.0 now you will be entitled to a free update to the final version of 1.1.

·         We expect to release version 1.1 under the same terms and pricing as the 1.0 release, including a 1.1N release. The pricing page gives current pricing for all of the released Netscape products.



Yahoo 1966 Page,




World Series []Weekly Picks


Yellow Pages - People Search - City Maps -- Stock Quotes - Sports Scores




Google 1997 Page


Google 1997 Page


        Google Search Engine

This is a demo of the Google Search Engine. Note, it is research in progress so expect some downtimes and malfunctions. You can find the older Backrub web page here.

Google is being developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin with very talented implementation help by Scott Hassan and Alan Steremberg.

Top of Form

Search Stanford


Bottom of Form


Top of Form

Search The Web


Bottom of Form



Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s Website, 1966,



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Internet 2007






one choice

another choice

canada’s choice

choose a canadian wipo implementation

link tpms to copyright

choose education

fair use

choose access to knowledge

national digital library

choose creativity

crown copyright

choose free speech

notice and notice

choose privacy

prohibition on privacy circumvention

choose innovation

protection from drm/freedom to tinker

choose research

open access

“culture of sharing”

choose public broadcasting

bbc, nbc, abc models for the cbc

choose culture

freeze copyright terms

choose balance

user rights as a full partner

choose a copyright and cultural policy that looks ahead not behind

canada’s choice

our choice

choose wisely